Khow or Chitrali

Khow or Chitrals, the people constituting the basic population of the territory of the former principality of Chitral, in northern Pakistan. Population, more than 100,000 (1970, estimate).
The Kho language, Khowar, belongs to the Dardic language group. Most of the Kho are Sunni and Ismaili Muslims by religion. They practice agriculture and stock raising. Their craftsmen, especially the smiths, are highly valued by neighboring peoples. The social structure, everyday life, and family relationships among the Kho have not been studied in detail.
The Traditional Polo game of khow tribes in chitral

Region Chitral; Shandur Pass to Fupis in Ghizr Valley, Yasin and Ishkhoman valleys in Gilgit Agency, Ushu in northern Swat Valley, and large communities in Peshawar and Rawalpindi. Also spoken in India. Alternative names Khawar, Chitrali, Citrali, Chitrari, Arniya, Patu, Qashqari, Kashkari Dialects North Khowar, South Khowar, East Khowar, Swat Khowar. The northern dialect is considered to be more 'pure'. Related to Kalasha, but different. Lexical similarity 86% to 98% among dialects. Classification Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Chitral Language use Trade language. The most important language of Chitral. Urdu schools; some girls go through fifth grade or higher. Different second languages used in different areas: Pashto in the south, Shina and Burushaski in the Gilgit Agency, Kalami and some Pashto in Swat, Urdu and English among the educated. Language development Literacy rate in second language: 15% to 20% men, 1% women. Radio programs. Comments 'Kho' means 'people', 'war' means 'language'. Monthly journal in Khowar. SOV. Mountain valleys. Muslim (Sunni and Ismali).

Narody Iuzhnoi Azil. Moscow, 1963.Rustamov, U. A. Prigindukushskie kniazhestva Severnoi Indii v kontse XIX—nachale XX vv. Tashkent, 1956.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved. 

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